Gemology is the branch of mineralogy and geology which is devoted to the study, identification, analysis and evaluation of precious stones or gems.1 A central task of gemology is to make available rigorous methods and procedures for distinguishing natural gems from their imitations and synthetic versions. These procedures include measurements made with different instruments and devices (e.g. crystallographic and photometric measurements, microscopy, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, etc.) .2 It is therefore a scientific discipline that is unrelated to with esoteric practices which attribute meaning or supposed therapeutic properties to gemstones.
Because of the value of the pieces studied, he dispenses with mineralogical methods that require the extraction of samples and only uses procedures that keep them intact.
The gemologist must know several disciplines such as: crystallography, optics, mathematics, crystallochemistry, analytical chemistry, synthesis and imitation of precious stones, among others.
The composition, the physical properties, the origin and the deposits, the treatments of various nature, the types of cut that highlight the beauty of precious stones, the synthetic minerals and the characteristics and properties of these materials imitating the stones natural treasures are studied. Some of the frequent applications are assessment and evaluation.
Lithotherapy is a health therapy whose main element is the use of crystals and stones to harmonize and rebalance the body. This type of alternative therapy is based on the natural energy of minerals which are applied to the diseased organ, in order to transmit its energy, to rebalance it and to heal it.